The water softening process essentially consists in an exchange of calcium ions (Ca2 +), magnesium (Mg2 +) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) which are commonly present in water and which constitute the so-called HARDNESS (° F) of ‘water, with sodium ions that are, however, soluble and non-encrusting. This ion exchange process takes place by means of cationic resins with high potential for exchange.
Water softeners are the tools that enable this process. They are made simply from fiberglass containers, filled with special cationic ion exchange resins, through which passes the water to be softened.
Of course it will come to a point where the resins will no longer be able to exchange calcium and magnesium ions with sodium ions. At this point the resin is defined as “exhausted” and to restore it is necessary to perform a regeneration with a solution of sodium chloride (salt).
The softeners may be used for civil users and / or industrial of low, medium and high capacity, are fully automatic and can be found in compact versions, cab, body double and duplex, with connections from ¾ “to 3”. Furthermore, depending on the needs, regeneration may be carried out with time-controlled or with volumetric control.
Time control: the regeneration of the softener begins at prearranged times and based on the supposed use of water.
Volumetric command: the regeneration of the softener begins when the resins have exhausted their capacity to exchange on the basis of the volume of water passed through the resins.
The volume control is used, in general, when water consumption is variable and unpredictable; it is avoided, in this way, that the regeneration is carried out in advance (waste of regenerating) or late (escape of hardness in service).