The demineralization is a chemical-physical treatment, usually of water, for total (zero liquid discharge) or partial elimination of dissolved salts.
The water, as a common fluid with high transport capacity of heat (the latent heat of vaporization of water is the highest known with the exception of the ammonia) is frequently used for the transmission of energy, in the form of heat.
This involves the supply of thermal energy to water, and possibly a change of physical state. In these phases you can have separation of dissolved salts in the water itself, which then precipitate deposited on the exchange surfaces.
salt deposits on the surfaces reduce heat exchangeand here is the need to avoid precipitation. The most comprehensive method is the removal of dissolved salts before heating ie the demineralization.
The demineralization of water can be achieved by various processes:
• chemical-physical (the so-called sodium-calcium treatment);
• by selective extraction of the ions constituting the salts using chemical compounds called selective ion-exchange resins;
• osmotic